Friday, July 31, 2020

Archaic period of Greece

In 720 BC first Greek colonies established on the Island now known as Sicily. During the early period of Archaic, most city-states still had a hereditary king (basileus). Over time, however, the new organization of the city-states led to conflict between the king and the aristocracy. 

The aristocracy grew powerful in this period as they gradually bought up the already limited farmland, and typically brought in slaves to work the land. This resulted in the impoverishment of many of the former small farmers, but created a wealthy, elite class that came to dominate the city-states. The result was oligarchy, a system of government ruled by a small group of elites.

Ancient Greek civilization began with the rise of the city-states in Greece in about 800B.C. Of the 150 city-states of ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta were the strongest and most well-known though the two city-states were very different in culture and lifestyle.

The Greek world emerged from its temporary isolation and began to experience such great changes that a new era is defined as beginning around 750 BCE.

At this time new developments were including reintroduction of writing, increased trade, and emergence of poleis. The poleis – the city-state – emerged in Greece as a community of citizens, as a political, geographical, religious, and judicial unit, with an assembly, council, elected magistrates and written laws.

During the Archaic period, increased contact with the east brought the Greeks new ideas regarding pottery, sculpture, architecture, mythology, religion, and the use of iron and bronze. Most important of all was the reintroduction of writing, this time using an alphabet derived from Phoenician examples.
Archaic period of Greece

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